Changes between Version 1 and Version 2 of TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
07/10/20 13:09:46 (2 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracEnvironment

    v1 v2  
    1 = The Trac Environment =
     1= The Trac Environment
    22
    3 Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]]
    45
    5 == Creating an Environment ==
     6Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''.
    67
    7 A new Trac environment is created using [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    8 {{{
    9 $ trac-admin /path/to/projectenv initenv
     8Trac supports [https://www.sqlite.org/ SQLite], [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [https://www.mysql.com/ MySQL] databases. With PostgreSQL and MySQL you have to create the database before running `trac-admin initenv`.
     9
     10== Creating an Environment
     11
     12A new Trac environment is created using the [TracAdmin#initenv initenv] command:
     13{{{#!sh
     14$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    1015}}}
    1116
    12 [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] will ask you for the name of the project, the
    13 database connection string (explained below), and the type and path to
    14 your source code repository.
     17`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the [#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string].
    1518
    16 ''Note: The web server user will require file system write permission to
    17 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
    18 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the Subversion repository
    19 Trac is eventually using, although Trac will only require read access as long
    20 as you're not using the BDB file system.''
     19A base configuration can be specified using the `--inherit` or `--config` options. The `--inherit` option can be specified one or more times to utilize a [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration global configuration]. The options specified in a `--config` file will be used to override the defaults when initializing `trac.ini`. See below for an [#SourceCodeRepository example] of defining repositories in a configuration file.
    2120
    22 == Database Connection Strings ==
     21=== Useful Tips
    2322
    24 Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite],
    25 [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] as
    26 database backends.  The default is to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient
    27 for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment
    28 directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the
    29 rest of the environment.
     23 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone.
    3024
    31 The connection string for an embedded SQLite database is:
     25 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     26
     27 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported.
     28
     29 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-plugins_dir-option shared plugins directory] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are not enabled by default, in contrast to plugins in the environment `plugins` directory. Hence, if they need to create extra tables, for example, the tables will not be created during environment creation and you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. Alternatively you can avoid the need to upgrade the environment by explicitly enabling the plugin(s) in a configuration file using the `--inherit` or `--config` option. See TracAdmin#FullCommandReference for more information.
     30
     31{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em;"
     32**Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//.
     33
     34This is a common beginners' mistake.
     35It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modeled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and //must not// be located at the same place.
     36}}}
     37
     38== Database Connection Strings
     39
     40You will need to specify a database connection string at the time the environment is created. The default is SQLite, which is sufficient for most projects. The SQLite database file is stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     41
     42Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be [https://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/dencoder/ URL encoded].
     43{{{#!sh
     44$ python -c "import urllib; print urllib.quote('password@:/123', '')"
     45password%40%3A%2F123
     46}}}
     47
     48=== SQLite Connection String
     49
     50The connection string for an SQLite database is:
    3251{{{
    3352sqlite:db/trac.db
    3453}}}
     54where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
    3555
    36 If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
    37 different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
    38 database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
    39 user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     56See [trac:DatabaseBackend#SQLite] for more information.
     57
     58=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     59
     60The connection string for PostgreSQL is a bit more complex. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database named `trac` on `localhost` for user `johndoe` and password `letmein`, use:
    4061{{{
    4162postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
    4263}}}
    4364
    44 If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     65If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use:
    4566{{{
    4667postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
    4768}}}
    4869
    49 Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
    50 `trac-admin initenv`.
    51 
    52 And make sure PostgreSQl DB name is "trac". What worked for me:
    53 And didn't work uppercase trac-user-name
     70On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
    5471{{{
    55 sudo su - postgres -c createdb trac
    56 sudo su - postgres -c psql trac
    57 CREATE USER trac-user-name WITH PASSWORD 'trac-pass-name';
     72postgres://user:password@/database
    5873}}}
    5974
    60 (Just to remind you, if you don't have a sudo/su setup, you just need to do the createdb and psql statements. That threw me the first couple of times I read this.)
    61 
    62 == Source Code Repository ==
    63 
    64 You'll first have to provide the ''type'' of your repository (e.g. `svn` for Subversion,
    65 which is the default), then the ''path'' where the repository is located.
    66 
    67 If you don't want to use Trac with a source code repository, simply leave the ''path'' empty
    68 (the ''type'' information doesn't matter, then).
    69 
    70 For some systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
    71 but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
    72 related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
    73 Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
    74 
    75 Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository:
     75or a specific one:
    7676{{{
    77 [trac]
    78 repository_type = svn
    79 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
     77postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
    8078}}}
    8179
    82 The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
    83 {{{
    84 [trac]
    85 repository_type = svn
    86 repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
     80See the [https://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL].
     81Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser` and a database named `trac`:
     82{{{#!sh
     83$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     84$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
    8785}}}
    8886
    89 == Directory Structure ==
     87When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the `tracuser`. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode.
    9088
    91 An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     89Under some default configurations (Debian), run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user:
     90{{{#!sh
     91$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     92$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     93}}}
     94
     95Trac uses the `public` schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     96{{{
     97postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
     98}}}
     99
     100=== MySQL Connection String
     101
     102The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on `localhost` named `trac` for user `johndoe` with password `letmein`:
     103{{{
     104mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     105}}}
     106
     107=== Changing Database Backend
     108
     109The TracAdmin `convert_db` command allows migrating between SQLite, MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
     110
     111[[TracAdminHelp(convert_db)]]
     112
     113== Deleting a Trac Environment
     114
     115The Trac environment can be deleted using standard filesystem utilities to delete the directory that was passed to the `initenv` command. For an environment using SQLite, this will also delete the SQLite database, which resides on-disk in the environment `db` directory. For an environment using PostgreSQL or MySQL, you will need to use the associated database utilities to delete the database.
     116
     117== Source Code Repository
     118
     119A single environment can be connected to more than one repository. However, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' navigation item will not be displayed. There are several ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin.
     120
     121Repositories can be defined at the time of environment creation by specifying a configuration file to the `initenv` command using the `--config` or `--inherit` options. Cached repositories will be synchronized if the repository connector(s) are enabled. Example:
     122
     123{{{#!sh
     124$ trac-admin $ENV initenv --config=config.ini
     125$ cat config.ini
     126[components]
     127tracopt.versioncontrol.* = enabled
     128
     129[repositories]
     130.dir = /path/to/default/type/repos
     131repos1.type = git
     132repos1.dir = /path/to/git/repos
     133repos2.type = svn
     134repos2.dir = /path/to/svn/repos
     135}}}
     136
     137== Directory Structure
     138
     139An environment consists of the following files and directories:
    92140
    93141 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
    94  * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
    95  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     142 * `VERSION` - Environment version identifier.
     143 * `files`
     144  * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets.
    96145 * `conf`
    97    * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     146  * `trac.ini` - Main [TracIni configuration file].
    98147 * `db`
    99    * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
    100  * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs)
    101  * `templates` - Custom environment-specific templates.
    102    * `site_css.cs` - Custom CSS rules.
    103    * `site_footer.cs` - Custom page footer.
    104    * `site_header.cs` - Custom page header.
    105  * `wiki-macros` - Environment-specific [wiki:WikiMacros Wiki macros].
    106 
    107   '''Note: don't confuse a Trac environment directory with the source code repository directory.
    108 It happens that the above structure is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
    109 structure, but they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.'''
     148  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite.
     149 * `htdocs` - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in templates using the path `/chrome/site/...`.
     150 * `log` - Default directory for log files when `file` logging is enabled and a relative path is given.
     151 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins].
     152 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     153  * `site.html` - Method to [TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance customize] the site header, footer, and style.
    110154
    111155----
    112 See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide
     156See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni